NASA’s Exploration Campaign: Back to the Moon and on to Mars

If the Moon has enough water, and if it’s reasonably convenient to access, future explorers might be able to use it as a resource. (Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center)

“The directive I am signing today will refocus America’s space program on human exploration and discovery. It marks a first step in returning American astronauts to the Moon for the first time since 1972, for long-term exploration and use. This time, we will not only plant our flag and leave our footprints — we will establish a foundation for an eventual mission to Mars, and perhaps someday, worlds beyond.” 

-President Donald Trump

WASHINGTON, DC (NASA PR) — In December 2017, President Donald J. Trump gave NASA a new direction, telling the agency to work with international and commercial partners to refocus exploration efforts on the moon, with an eye to eventually going on to Mars and even beyond.

As stated in Space Policy Directive-1, “The NASA Administrator shall, ‘Lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the solar system and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities.

Credit: NASA

Beginning with missions beyond low-Earth orbit, the United States will lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations.’ ”

The Exploration Campaign is a national and agency effort focused on three core domains: low Earth orbit; lunar orbit and surface; and Mars and other deep space objectives. The campaign has four strategic goals:

  • Transition U.S. human spaceflight in low-Earth orbit to commercial operations, which support NASA and the needs of an emerging private sector market.
  • Extend long-duration U.S. human spaceflight operations to lunar orbit.
  • Enable long-term robotic exploration of the Moon.
  • Enable human exploration of the Moon as preparation for human missions to Mars and deeper into the solar system.

Each focus area has a set of objectives:

Low-Earth orbit objectives:

  • End direct support to ISS by 2025 while stimulating commercial industry to develop capabilities NASA and private sector can utilize and meet NASA’s exploration risk mitigation and science requirements.
  • Starting in 2018, increase the breadth and depth of commercial and international LEO activities. Specifically:
    • Offer to expand the International Space Station partnerships to new nations, including new international astronaut visits.
    • Based on inputs from current ISS partners, commercial, stakeholders to shape the plan for the transition of LEO activities from direct government funding to a commercial basis on independent commercial platforms or a non-NASA operating model for some form of the ISS by 2025.
    • Expand public-private partnerships to develop and demonstrate technologies and capabilities to enable new commercial space products and services.

Lunar orbit and surface objective:

  • Establish a long-term presence in the vicinity of and on the Moon, realizing science and human exploration advancement, while also enabling other National and commercial goals.

Lunar orbit objectives:

  • Conduct the uncrewed SLS/Orion first flight in 2020 to the lunar vicinity.
  • Conduct a crewed flight sending Americans around the Moon in 2023.
  • Establish a human tended lunar orbiting platform for crews to visit from earth, to transit to and from the lunar surface, and to depart to and return from Mars.
  • Develop the Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway that, at a minimum:
    • Emplaces a power-propulsion (communications) element (PPE) around the Moon by 2022. The development of this first strategic element will incorporate innovative procurement and partnering strategies, capitalize on US commercial communication satellite capabilities, demonstrate high power solar electric propulsion technology, and provide the critical functionality for the rest of the cislunar orbital platform.
    • Performs science and technology activities, for example, lunar sample return and the operation of lunar robotic and in-space systems.

Lunar surface objectives:

  • Orchestrate a lunar robotics campaign with a focus on growing a commercial base of partnerships and activity that can support U.S. science, technology, and exploration objectives. Include international participation, where appropriate.
    • Support a small commercial lander initiative with an initial strategic presence on the Moon no later than 2020.
    • Develop (a mid-to-large scale lander initiative working toward human-rated lander. This initiative will focus on enabling commercial and international partnerships.
    • Support an early science and technology initiative that includes Lunar CubeSats, a Virtual Lunar Institute and other activities.
  • Further enable and nurture entrepreneurial and commercial market forces that will define long-term human exploration and exploitation of the lunar surface.
  • Aggressively characterize lunar resources so that their potential future exploitation can be addressed.

Mars and other deep space objectives

  • Maintain and grow U.S. leadership at Mars with a rover in 2020, as a first step of a sample-return strategy, searching for past life and demonstrating oxygen production. Use this mission as a building block for a subsequent round-trip robotic mission with the historic first launch off another planet and sample return through the lunar gateway and the broader exploration architecture.
  • Prioritize and guide investments and partnerships in long-pole technology areas and resource characterization needed for the exploration of Mars and other deep space destinations.
  • Develop standards for human long-duration deep space transportation vehicles.

Cross-cutting objectives:

  • Establish NASA roles as architect, systems integrator, and expedition lead.
    • Define an open architecture that meets National objectives, enables its partners, and where appropriate, interfaces with other partner and entities’ goals and objectives
    • Relatedly, develop system interface standards and requirements designed, where appropriate, for commercial and international collaboration
  • Seek and develop substantial new international, commercial, and inter-agency partnerships, leveraging current International Space Station (ISS) partnerships and building new cooperative ventures for exploration.
    • Expand international, commercial, and inter-Agency partnerships on the ISS to provide a proving ground and incubator for new partners while helping to offset the costs of operations.
    • Expand International, commercial, and inter-Agency opportunities for research and technology development to offset the costs of operations.
    • Continue US Government research and technology development necessary for the broader Lunar Exploration Campaign.
    • Seek potential incentives that could enable broader participation by providing commercial transportation and access for both cargo and crew to the ISS for new users of space.
  • Interact with and leverage where appropriate lunar orbital and surface activities outside of NASA (e.g. depots, on-orbit assembly, inter-nodal servicing, and scientific assets and facilities).

  • Brainbit

    If SpaceX has Elon time what time does NASA have?
    If the time lines stated here are aspirational, what are the financial expectations here called?.

  • therealdmt

    “If the time lines stated here are aspirational, what are the financial expectations called?”

    The Half-step, Alabama Deficit Spending Toodleloo

    “Hello baby, I’m gone, goodbye. Half a cup of moon dust and some big ole lies. Farewell to you social security, you’re on your way, on your way…”

  • ThomasLMatula

    Speaking of SpaceX, they are ramping things up at McGregor, TX for the BFR. The latest spy photos are included in the article as well as a video of a Raptor firing.

    https://www.teslarati.com/spacex-shotwell-bfr-mars-rocket-texas/

    SpaceX execs bullish on BFR as Mars rocket test facilities expand in Texas

    by Eric Ralph
    Posted on April 24, 2018

  • Andrew Tubbiolo

    This will be used as a wrecking operation against having any real space policy. If I’m right, we’ll see no lander development, and no development of rovers or habitation architecture. That may play into Space X’s and Bigellows hands. But without a lander it will again become a wrecking operation. Indications either way will be had by looking at how Brandenstein’s NASA responds to BFS and BFR should they come online during their watch. My bet is Brandenstein’s NASA ignores them, and will give short shrift to a ACES derived lander, but that means a delay into a second Trump admin or even beyond that.

  • Looks cool, go do it!

  • passinglurker

    I wouldn’t be surprised if the next admin pivots back to ARM all the hardware is still in the pipe line other than the boulder pincher that goes on the front of the sep tug. It would certainly save face better than going “we put a station in lunar orbit that does nothing special”

  • Zed_WEASEL

    If BFS comes online more or less on schedule. The NASA exploration road map will become an interesting historical what if document. Since most of the NASA exploration goals could be undertaken with the BFB & BFS combo with no further development of launchers, transfer vehicles, orbiters & landers. Remember the BFS is a Moon lander that could return to Earth without refueling.

  • Andrew Tubbiolo

    I would not be surprised if you are right. I personally think the government is not interested in space development for fear it will create a new mandate that must be funded. I think the trick is for SX, Bigelow, and ULA to come up with working hardware that can catch an administration during a policy change and align their working hardware with that policy. Then it can take hold and become the ongoing mandate that will be funded. You avoid the build up period where political opponents and competitors for the funds can tear the project apart before it flies. We need the private sector with is ability to serve many masters to provide cross funding to a project from serving other economic functions that lie beyond the reach of politics to keep architectures alive and functional.

  • duheagle

    As the old saying goes, “Say anything you want about me, but spell my name right.”

  • Andrew Tubbiolo

    If it wants to, NASA can ignore BFS for a long time. Should BFS be delayed, and all history says it will be, they’ll harp on that until the cows come home. They can invoke safety, inexperience with dealing with spacecraft of that scale, you name it. My gut tells me NASA will pretend BFS does not exist for a very long time. Hope I’m wrong.

  • duheagle

    MSFC is certainly going to give it the old college try.

  • JS Initials

    It’s been 46 years since humanity went beyond LEO in the flesh…Doug Messier and many of the rest of you weren’t even born yet when it last happened. A lot of changes have occurred in spaceflight technology and in western culture in those 46 years….GO back further to 1960, and NASA’s most powerful rocket, the Titan, was only 1/3rd as powerful as the Falcon 9. In 1960, NASA lacked computers. They resorted to using human beings on mechanical adding machines.They had ordered a transistorized, wall-sized IBM computer called IBM 7090 that was capable of doing 24,000 calculations per second using FORTRAN. …WOW!! 24,000 calculations per second from a wall-sized computer! Imagine trying to send a message to a message-board like this using that machine? …And NASA in 1960-62, like America in 1960, was very different!…Colored people had to use their own washrooms. They were arrested for protesting segregation at lunch counters, etc. Women and blacks were denied promotions,etc for their gender or race. Vacuum-tube black and white TV sets were the way Americans viewed live programs. Liberals in America wanted to ban the bomb out of fear of nuclear war, while conservatives back then wanted to drop the bomb on Russia before Russia may do so on D.C. and other US cities….It’s the reverse today.
    So I HIGHLY RECOMMEND you all see the movie, “Hidden Figures”, based on the true story of three African-American mathematics geniuses who worked for NASA IN 1960-1962, helping to solve difficult equations for spaceflight. One of them helped John Glenn launch on February, 20, 1962. The movie can be downloaded from Netflix, Youtube or purchased as Blueray or DVD disc. I highly recommend it!!!

  • JS Initials

    It has been 46 years since human beings went beyond LEO, isn’t that long enough? Most of you weren’t even born when it last happened.

  • JS Initials

    BTW, whatever becomes of this American future space plan and timeline, it is good to be reminded of what happened during the early years of NASA. There is a movie out called, “Hidden Figures”, about three female African-American mathematics geniuses who changed the direction of NASA, whom they worked for from 1960 on to the Shuttle era. They helped solve difficult equations for spaceflight, including helping get John Glenn into space in February, 20, 1962. Back then, NASA had barely acquired a wall-sized IBM 7090 mainframe that could do 24,000 calculations per second. WOW!!…LOL!!! …Things were much different then for America and NASA. African-Americans had to have their own separate public washrooms, etc… Most Americans watched B&W TV sets for ‘live’ programming. NASA had to rely on mathematicians with mechanical adding machines, pencils and paper. Manned spaceflight? Men on the Moon? These were concepts that NASA felt they lacked the means to achieve. LISTEN! If you are a GENUINE spaceflight enthusiast and are a GENUINE advocate of social justice, that movie is for you. Please go to Netflix, etc to download it.