NASA Selects Honeybee Robotics for Six Small Business Awards

The green oval highlights the plumes Hubble observed on Europa. The area also corresponds to a warm region on Europa’s surface. The map is based on observations by the Galileo spacecraft (Credits: NASA/ESA/STScI/USGS)

Honeybee Robotics will begin developing new technologies that would allow a lander to drill into the icy surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa and collect samples for analysis with the help of a pair of NASA small business awards.

The space agency selected Honeybee for four Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I awards and two Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Phase 1 contracts for a maximum of $125,000 apiece. The SBIR contracts are for six months and the STTR contracts for one year.

The STTR awards involve collaborative projects with the SETI Institute and the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems. The selected proposals include:

  • SLUSH: Europa Hybrid Deep Drill — SBIR
  • Europa Drum Sampler (EDuS) — SBIR
  • Planetary LEGO — STTR with PISCES
  • High Temperature Stirling Cooler — SBIR
  • Instrumented Bit for In-Situ Spectroscopy (IBISS) — STTR with SETI Institute
  • Universal Docking Interface for Free-Flying Robots — SBIR

SLUSH is designed to address the drawbacks of a probe that melts  ice — which requires a lot of power, isn’t very efficient, can only drill through ice, and has a tendency to overheat —  and an electro-mechanical drill that must move ice shavings aside and has a tendency to freeze in place if it encounters liquid water.

“We therefore propose a Hybrid approach that takes the best of both worlds and reduces risks posed by each of the options above,”  the proposal states. “SLUSH is a hot-point electro-mechanical drill that cuts through ice using rotary-percussive action, and melts chips with its hot bit to form slush. The slush moves up the hole where it refreezes behind the drill. SLUSH is approximately 14 cm in diameter and 2.5 m long.”

NASA’s Europa Clipper mission is being designed to fly by the icy Jovian moon multiple times and investigate whether it possesses the ingredients necessary for life. (Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute)

The Europa Drum Sampler (EDuS) would allow a lander to obtain a sample of the moon’s ice for analysis.

“The proposed drum sampling system is based on a terrestrial roadheader design and includes a Thwacker that generates percussive vibrations during rotary excavation,” the proposal states. “All components will be designed to withstand Dry Heat Microbial Reduction as well as Planetary Protection requirements.”

Honeybee Robotics’ collaboration with Hawaii-based PISCES focuses on pair of other worlds — the moon and Mars — that astronauts could visit in the decades ahead.

High performance materials and structures are needed for safe and affordable next generation exploration systems such as transit vehicles, habitats, and power systems. (Credit: NASA)

Planetary LEGO would produce prototype building blocks made of simulated lunar and martian soil to determine how landing pads, roads, habitats and shelters could be built using robotic systems.

“In order to reduce the volume/mass of construction materials to be transported from Earth, it will be critical to utilize in-situ resources as the main construction material,” the proposal states. “Regolith seems to be the most logical choice given its abundance and easy access.”

By Ultraviolet Imager (UVI), at around 2:19 p.m. on Dec. 7 (Japan Standard Time) at the Venus altitude of about 72,000 km. (Credit: JAXA)

Switching from the icy deserts of Mars to the scorched surface of Venus, the company has been selected for a NASA contract to begin development of a Stirling cooler “suitable for integration with a sensor package at the end of an effector or robot arm, which is capable of keeping conventional electronics cool outside of the spacecraft body in the high temperature Venus environment.

“This advance would vastly expand the list of technologies which can be deployed on the surface of Venus, and correspondingly advance the types of science that can be performed,” the proposal states.

Under the Instrumented Bit for In-Situ Spectroscopy (IBISS) contract, Honeybee Robotics will integrate a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy probe with a drill bit to allow for the rapid evaluation of subsurface soil on other worlds.

The Robotic Arm on NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander carrying a scoop of Martian soil bound for the spacecraft’s microscope. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona)

“The following missions highlighted by the PSD will specifically benefit from IBISS: a) landed exploration missions to Venus, Moon, Mars, Europa, Titan, comets, and asteroids; b) sample return missions to Moon, Mars, comets and asteroids,” the proposal states.

“In addition, IBISS may be used to identify and map available planetary in-situ resources, and to spur the development of autonomous in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) devices for robotic and human missions,” the proposal adds.

Under another contract, Honeybee robotics would creating a universal docking interface for free-flying robots of the type that are already in use aboard the International Space Station.

“Currently, no universal electromechanical engagement interface exists for free-flying robots, limiting their ability to dock, perch, recharge, change tools, manipulate payloads, and assemble in modular structures for intravehicular, extravehicular, and planetary surface operations,” the proposal states.

Summaries of the six selected proposals follow.

Proposal Title: SLUSH: Europa Hybrid Deep Drill
Subtopic Title: Robotic Mobility, Manipulation and Sampling

Small Business Concern
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Brooklyn, NY

Principal Investigator/Project Manager
Dr. Kris Zacny
Pasadena, CA

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

Technical Abstract

There are at least two fundamental design approaches one could use when trying to penetrate the icy shell on Europa and other planetary bodies: a melt probe and an electro-mechanical drill.

A melt probe uses a hot point to melt through ice and penetrate downward. In this regard, it is a very simple approach – it requires a heat source. However, the power required to melt 50-110K ice is 10s of kW, of which 90% is lost into the surrounding ice. In addition, melt probes will not penetrate anything else but ice, and if the heat is provided by integrated RTGs, the probe will overheat and melt if the conductive properties of ice change (e.g. if ice becomes porous, it will become a very good insulator).

The electro-mechanical approach is an order of magnitude more energy efficient than a melt probe. However, the drill needs to get rid of the cuttings it is generating. The drill can also freeze in-place if it encounters any liquid water. Numerous drills deployed in Antarctica, for example, froze in-place while drilling down the borehole, because ice tuned into liquid water at the cutter-ice interface.

We therefore propose a Hybrid approach that takes the best of both worlds and reduces risks posed by each of the options above. SLUSH is a hot-point electro-mechanical drill that cuts through ice using rotary-percussive action, and melts chips with its hot bit to form slush. The slush moves up the hole where it refreezes behind the drill. SLUSH is approximately 14 cm in diameter and 2.5 m long.

Because SLUSH uses mechanical action to break ice, it is significantly faster than a melt probe and also significantly more efficient, since slush does not have as much time to loose heat into the surrounding ice. Since SLUSH uses a hammer drill, it can also penetrate material with a significant fraction of insoluble material (e.g. silt).

An added benefit of SLUSH is that science instruments can draw liquid directly from the outside for analysis.

Potential NASA Commercial Applications

The primary application of SLUSH is in penetrating to subglacial oceans on Europa and possibly Enceladus. The system could also be deployed on Mars, in either the northern or the southern Polar Regions.

Subsystems developed for SLUSH could be used on many other planetary missions. For example power management, motors, and bits, percussive system can be infused into any other surface missions requiring sample acquisition. These missions include Venus in Situ Explorer, Venus Mobile Explorer, Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin Sample Return, and Mars Sample Return and so on.

Potential Non-NASA Commercial Applications

Main non-NASA applications include penetrating to subglacial lakes in Antarctica as well as penetrating below Greenland ice sheet. Aseptic sampling of subglacial lakes is critical to astrobiology. A drill that can go through DHMR and is fully decoupled from the surface will be ideal for such an application. The SLUSH could also be used to deploy instruments and sensors (e.g. neutrino counters) around Antarctica. Since this would be a robotic system, the “field” season will not long be limited to a few summer months but could continuous through the year.

Technology Taxonomy Mapping

  • Actuators & Motors
  • Conversion
  • Cryogenic/Fluid Systems
  • Deployment
  • Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
  • Heat Exchange
  • Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
  • Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
  • Simulation & Modeling
  • Tribology

Proposal Title: Europa Drum Sampler (EDuS)
Subtopic Title: Robotic Mobility, Manipulation and Sampling

Small Business Concern
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Brooklyn, NY

Principal Investigator/Project Manager
Dr. Kris Zacny
Pasadena, CA

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

Technical Abstract

The main objective of the proposed work is to develop a robust and effective sample acquisition system for the Europa lander called the Europa Drum Sampler (EDuS). The proposed drum sampling system is based on a terrestrial roadheader design and includes a Thwacker that generates percussive vibrations during rotary excavation. All components will be designed to withstand Dry Heat Microbial Reduction as well as Planetary Protection requirements.

The EDuS’ structural components include a support boom, a buffer plate, and a cutter head. The support boom is hollow and its position and length can be adjusted depending on the required excavation depth and volume on the lander. For launch, the boom will be compressed and then spring-extended upon landing. A spring loaded boom has an added advantage of mitigating Thwacker vibrations to the Robotic Arm. The buffer plate is also a structural member whose main purpose is to prevent chips from falling out.

The cuter head is the central part of the system. The cutter head has been designed in the shape of a typical cylindrical pressure vessel. The teeth are placed on all rotating surfaces, including the convex sides. This shape can deal with a range of surface topographies from flat to very jagged. The teeth are very sharp to reduce cutting forces and are made of carbide to increase longevity. The cutter head also includes a ring of teeth which make up the Thwacker Ratchet. Thwacking will reduce cutting forces and aid in sample delivery.

Potential NASA Commercial Applications

The near term application includes NASA’s Flagship-class Europa Clipper mission and in particular its lander that requires a sampling system. This SBIR funded technology would transition very well into the actual mission. Europa lander will launch in approximately 2024. This Phase 1 work would end in December of 2017, while the Phase 2 work (TRL6) would end in Dec of 2019. Thus, at the end of 2019 with at least 5 years before the actual launch, the TRL6 sampling system or critical subsystems of the sampling system deemed important by the Europa team could be infused into the actual mission.

Other NASA missions that could include this sampling system (or certain subsystems of this sampling system) include:

1. Discovery-class missions to icy-bodies, including Mars;

2. New Frontiers class missions such as Comet Nucleus Surface Sample Return, Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin Sample Return, Venus In Situ Explorer;

3. In the Flagship class category, in addition to the Clipper mission, another mission that could use the sampling system includes the second mission in the Mars Sample Return Program – Mars Ascent Vehicle. It is prudent to have a backup sampling system adjacent to the MAV.

In the HEOMD directorate, In Situ Resource Utilization missions to Mars, asteroids, or the Moon, such as Asteroid Redirect Robotic or Crew Mission (ARRM, ARCM) or Resource Prospector Mission could use this technology.

Potential Non-NASA Commercial Applications

The sampling technology system could be used by several commercial companies that are interested in mining and in-situ resource utilization for financial gain. These include Planetary Resources, Inc. and Deep Space Industries, Inc., targeting asteroids and Shackleton Energy Corp, targeting the Moon.

The ultimate goal of SpaceX is to establish human presence on Mars. As such, SpaceX would also benefit from mature sampling and mining technologies.

Other non-NASA applications include robotic acquisition of volatiles as well as soil and liquid samples from hazardous environments – chemical spills, nuclear waste, oil spills. Examples include samples from nuclear waste sites as well as disaster sites (Fukushima nuclear reactor).

Technology Taxonomy Mapping

  • Actuators & Motors
  • Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing
  • Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
  • Simulation & Modeling

Proposal Title: Planetary LEGO
Research Subtopic Title: Regolith Resources Robotics – R^3

Small Business Concern
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Brooklyn, NY

Research Institution
Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems
Hilo, Hawaii

Principal Investigator/Project Manager
Dr. Rodrigo Romo
Hilo, HI

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 3
End: 5

Technical Abstract

Prior to human arrival to the Moon or Mars, a certain amount of infrastructure will be required in order to ensure success of the overall goals of the mission. Such infrastructure will include some type of landing pads.

In order to reduce the volume/mass of construction materials to be transported from Earth, it will be critical to utilize in-situ resources as the main construction material. Regolith seems to be the most logical choice given its abundance and easy access. The proposed technology would allow for the robotic construction of critical structures in-situ using native resources.

In Phase I we therefore propose to:

  • Determine the ideal shapes for the building blocks that will allow mechanical jointing and construction of horizontal (landing pads, roads, etc.) and vertical (habitat, shelter, etc.) structures.
  • Manufacture the molds to fabricate these building blocks.
  • Fine tune the sintering process (thermal profile) to ensure repeatability of the fabrication of the material.
  • Produce prototype building blocks and test their structural properties and strength of the joints.
  • Develop the robotic concept for making the horizontal and vertical structures.
  • Design a horizontal and a vertical structure for fabrication during Phase II.

Potential NASA Commercial Applications

NASA applications would encompass Lunar and Mars human habitation missions. Development of a suitable construction grade material, or materials, derived directly from Lunar/Mars regolith without utilizing any additives could significantly advance ISRU options for the construction of infrastructure, equipment protection or habitats while reducing the amount of raw materials required to be transported from Earth.

A significant advantage of the processes suggested in this proposal relies on the simplicity of the concept. The raw material can go directly from the ground and into the production line without having to go through any separation, refinement or synthesis process.

Different grades of sintered basalt can be utilized for a variety of purposes including: tools, structural components, spare parts, VT/VL tiles, roads, indoor pavers, thermal re-entry tiles, radiation protection, thermal wadis, and shelter/habitat construction.

Potential Non-NASA Commercial Applications

It is estimated that approximately 5-6% of all CO2 greenhouse gases generated by human activity originate from concrete production . While it is not realistic to consider that basalt derived products could eliminate the use of cement, there are some locations (such as Hawaii) where all cement for construction must be shipped in.

While creating cement alternatives for such locations may not have a significant impact on the reduction of greenhouse emissions by decreasing concrete manufacturing (global demand remains high), it would reduce emissions created by shipping this critical material overseas. In addition to environmental benefits, it could create a new industry to diversify the local economies where it would be useful.

Technology Taxonomy Mapping

  • Destructive Testing
  • In Situ Manufacturing
  • Isolation/Protection/Radiation Shielding (see also Mechanical Systems)
  • Isolation/Protection/Shielding (Acoustic, Ballistic, Dust, Radiation, Thermal)
  • Joining (Adhesion, Welding)
  • Processing Methods
  • Resource Extraction
  • Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)

Proposal Title: High Temperature Stirling Cooler
Subtopic Title: Extreme Environments Technology

Small Business Concern
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Brooklyn, NY

Principal Investigator/Project Manager
Mr Andrew Maurer
Longmont, CO

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

Technical Abstract

Although Honeybee and others have made huge advances in developing mechanisms, motors, and electronics for use in high temperature/high pressure environments such as the surface of Venus (460C), certain types of critical electronic and sensing technologies are inherently temperature sensitive. The lack of high temperature tolerat cameras and optical sensors has, to date, prevented up-close in-situ analysis of the Venusian surface.

In this SBIR we will close that technology gap by developing a miniature Stirling cooler, suitable for integration with a sensor package at the end of an effector or robot arm, which is capable of keeping conventional electronics cool outside of the spacecraft body in the high temperature Venus environment.

This advance would vastly expand the list of technologies which can be deployed on the surface of Venus, and correspondingly advance the types of science that can be performed. We will demonstrate in Phase-I a brassboard system at high temperature, followed by a flight like system in full Venusian conditions in Phase-II.

Potential NASA Commercial Applications

Numerous NASA applications exist for high temperature robotic exploration programs to hot destinations like Venus or Mercury. Likewise, NASA-sponsored earth science programs in hot locales like boreholes, volcanoes, and deep sea vents may similarly benefit. Active cooling in non-cryogenic environments will be a key technology for next-generation high temperature exploration missions.

Potential Non-NASA Commercial Applications

While commercial space operators are less focused on high temperature robotic exploration, there are a great number of terrestrial/non-space applications in the private sector. A consistent source of inquiries into Honeybee’s HT motor products is the oil and gas sector, who utilize such equipment for down-hole inspection and sensing of oil and gas production boreholes. This development is ideally suited for these applications, as the sensors and equipment which can safely be operated at depth is presently sharply limited by the temperature range. Moreover, the borehole dimensions pose a constraint on size, which makes this miniaturized development for end effectors a “perfect fit.”

Likewise HBR has previously worked with commercial aviation customers who sought HT mechanisms for use on aircraft inside engine fairings. This is another hot, small, environment where customers would be interested in mounting instrumentation and electronics. A small, reliable, chiller could be an enabling technology for a new paradigm of engine and aerospace test equipment.

Technology Taxonomy Mapping

  • Active Systems
  • Actuators & Motors
  • Heat Exchange
  • Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
  • Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
  • Spacecraft Design, Construction, Testing, & Performance (see also Engineering; Testing & Evaluation)
  • Spacecraft Instrumentation & Astrionics (see also Communications; Control & Monitoring; Information Systems)

Proposal Title: Instrumented Bit for In-Situ Spectroscopy (IBISS)
Research Subtopic Title: Technologies for Planetary Compositional Analysis and Mapping

Small Business Concern
Honeybee Robotics
Brooklyn, NY

Research Institution
SETI
Mountain View, CA

Principal Investigator/Project Manager
Dr. Pablo Sobron
Mountain View, CA

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

Technical Abstract

We propose to build and critically test the Instrumented Bit for In-Situ Spectroscopy (IBISS), a novel system for in-situ, rapid analyses of planetary subsurface materials (Fig 2.1). IBISS will provide a rapid and unambiguous chemical/mineralogical characterization of subsurface materials by integrating an innovative, miniature LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) probe with a drill bit.

Specifically, we will:

  1. Design and assemble an IBISS breadboard system (Mk 1) and validate the optical circuit: Through model simulation and experimental work, we will investigate the performance of the various optical elements. We will determine the figures of merit of the laser, optical fiber, and lenses. We will use COTS or modified COTS for all optical, mechanical, and electronic systems.
  2. Design and assemble an IBISS miniaturized system (Mk 2), integrate it with the drill bit, and bench test it: We will perform component integration and system testing. We will determine scientific performance parameters of IBISS and compare them to those of bench-top LIBS instruments and drilling engineering performance metrics. We will use existing, certified/ independently characterized samples of lunar and martian regolith simulant.

Potential NASA Commercial Applications

Our innovation significantly improves instrument measurement capabilities for planetary science missions such as Discovery, New Frontiers, Mars Exploration, and other planetary programs (see Part 2.2). It has potential to become a critical new instrument in NASA’s exploration toolbox that can replace already-flown in-situ sensing technologies in future mission opportunities.

The following missions highlighted by the PSD will specifically benefit from IBISS: a) landed exploration missions to Venus, Moon, Mars, Europa, Titan, comets, and asteroids; b) sample return missions to Moon, Mars, comets and asteroids. In addition, IBISS may be used to identify and map available planetary in-situ resources, and to spur the development of autonomous in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) devices for robotic and human missions.

Potential Non-NASA Commercial Applications

IBISS responds to critical challenges at the scientific/engineering boundaries of drilling and sensing; in particular, the challenges involved in characterizing subsurface materials in-situ and in real-time. Conventional methods involve drilling and coring, and the analysis of cores in off-site laboratories. Not only is this approach laborious, time consuming, and dangerous for human operators, but the results are not uniformly reliable and typically not available for weeks.

In response to this challenge, we will combine concepts and methodologies from two different disciplines in a revolutionary way. While drilling robotics and LIBS spectroscopic sensing are established fields, we will combine them, for the first time, to develop a new tool for subsurface geochemical/mineralogical investigations. IBISS will enable:

(i) the development of other new techniques and methodologies based on spectroscopic subsurface investigations (e.g. Raman);

(ii) technological spin-offs that will constitute scientific advancements for the Earth, environmental, and planetary sciences, invite industrial applications, e.g. geological prospecting; environmental monitoring/assessment; agricultural soil quality monitoring; oil & gas exploration and development, and bolster homeland security initiatives

Technology Taxonomy Mapping

  • Actuators & Motors
  • Detectors (see also Sensors)
  • Fiber (see also Communications, Networking & Signal Transport; Photonics)
  • Lasers (Measuring/Sensing)
  • Lenses
  • Minerals
  • Mirrors
  • Optical/Photonic (see also Photonics)
  • Transmitters/Receivers
  • Waveguides/Optical Fiber (see also Optics)

Proposal Title: Universal Docking Interface for Free-Flying Robots
Subtopic Title: Payload Technologies for Free-Flying Robots

Small Business Concern
Honeybee Robotics, Ltd.
Brooklyn, NY

Principal Investigator/Project Manager
Jason Herman
Brooklyn, NY

Estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) at beginning and end of contract:
Begin: 2
End: 4

Technical Abstract

Currently, no universal electromechanical engagement interface exists for free-flying robots, limiting their ability to dock, perch, recharge, change tools, manipulate payloads, and assemble in modular structures for intravehicular, extravehicular, and planetary surface operations.

Honeybee Robotics (Honeybee) proposes to develop a Universal Docking Interface (UDI) that provides a common electromechanical connection architecture for free-flying robots. The UDI will enhance capabilities to mount and manipulate tools, sensors, payloads; dock for power and data transfer; perch for short- or long-term storage; and create new modular structures for intravehicular, extravehicular, and surface tasks in support of commercial operations and human spaceflight.

The UDI will be based on Honeybee’s existing solutions for robotic satellite servicing and planetary rover recharge , modified to meet NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Human Exploration Telerobotics requirements. This reliable plug-and-play docking and manipulation interface will provide an electromechanical quick-connect/disconnect for tools, sensors, and other payloads, as well as enabling truly modular assembly in microgravity.

The proposed Phase 1 effort will perform a detailed investigation of tool change, sensor payload interface, manipulation and docking requirements for free-flying robots supporting missions on-orbit, to Mars, the Moon, or NEOs. Interface requirements such as mate/de-mate cycles, stiffness, strength, repeatability, misalignment tolerance, human safety, debris mitigation, and electrical feedthrough characteristics will be derived through contact with potential end users to characterize potential use cases and future mission payloads.

Potential NASA Commercial Applications

Docking, manipulating and tool change interfaces will be key components to future free-flying robot platforms in support of human exploration missions. The UDI would find extensive applications in systems designed to operate in intravehicular activities, extravehicular activities, and surface operations on Mars, the Moon, NEOs and other dusty environments.

Future mission scenarios featuring flexible, modular, universal architectures for robotic manipulation, payloads, and sampling will all call for such an interface. Companion robots such as free-flying robots require ways to dock for modular assembly in free space, to manipulate assets, or to recharge.

Applications for the UDI include a range of missions beyond free-flying robots that may include on-orbit satellite servicing, companion robots for the Asteroid Redirect Mission, and next-decade landed Lunar missions.

Potential Non-NASA Commercial Applications

While NASA applications for this technology are the primary focus of this development effort, non-NASA applications for the UDI technology have been identified. There is a need for highly reliable robotic docking interfaces among a range of autonomous vehicles, including on-orbit servicing vehicles, ground robotics, and AUVs (i.e. drones).

By designing for autonomous operations, the UDI will provide misalignment tolerance, low-force engagement, light weight, and other features suited to UGV and UAV markets. Docking and recharge using a common interface can also extend range, function, and operational availability of teleoperated or semi-autonomous robotic systems. For example, DARPA is organizing the Consortium For Execution of Rendezvous and Servicing Operations (CONFERS) to define consensus-based technical standards that will enable commercial operations.

Honeybee plans to engage with industry standards developers to position the UDI as a common electromechanical interface to improve payload interoperation and functionality of future servicing robots. Non-NASA commercial applications will be examined more thoroughly during Phase 2 to provide a broader base for commercialization efforts.

Technology Taxonomy Mapping

  • Machines/Mechanical Subsystems
  • Robotics (see also Control & Monitoring; Sensors)
  • Tools/EVA Tools

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