European Southern Observatory to Search for Planets in Alpha Centauri

european_southern_observatory_eso_logoBreakthrough Initiatives Press Release

ESO has signed an agreement with the Breakthrough Initiatives to adapt the Very Large Telescope instrumentation in Chile to conduct a search for planets in the nearby star system Alpha Centauri. Such planets could be the targets for an eventual launch of miniature space probes by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative.

ESO, represented by the Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, has signed an agreement with the Breakthrough Initiatives, represented by Pete Worden, Chairman of the Breakthrough Prize Foundation and Executive Director of the Breakthrough Initiatives. The agreement provides funds for the VISIR (VLT Imager and Spectrometer for mid-Infrared) instrument, mounted at ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) to be modified in order to greatly enhance its ability to search for potentially habitable planets around Alpha Centauri, the closest stellar system to the Earth. The agreement also provides for telescope time to allow a careful search programme to be conducted in 2019.

The discovery in 2016 of a planet, Proxima b, around Proxima Centauri, the third and faintest star of the Alpha Centauri system, adds even further impetus to this search.

Knowing where the nearest exoplanets are is of paramount interest for Breakthrough Starshot, the research and engineering programme launched in April 2016, which aims to demonstrate proof of concept for ultra-fast light-driven “nanocraft”, laying the foundation for the first launch to Alpha Centauri within a generation.

Detecting a habitable planet is an enormous challenge due to the brightness of the planetary system’s host star, which tends to overwhelm the relatively dim planets. One way to make this easier is to observe in the mid-infrared wavelength range, where the thermal glow from an orbiting planet greatly reduces the brightness gap between it and its host star. But even in the mid-infrared, the star remains millions of times brighter than the planets to be detected, which calls for a dedicated technique to reduce the blinding stellar light.

The existing mid-infrared instrument VISIR on the VLT will provide such performance if it were enhanced to greatly improve the image quality using adaptive optics, and adapted to employ a technique called coronagraphy to reduce the stellar light and thereby reveal the possible signal of potential terrestrial planets. Breakthrough Initiatives will pay for a large fraction of the necessary technologies and development costs for such an experiment, and ESO will provide the required observing capabilities and time.

The new hardware includes an instrument module contracted to Kampf Telescope Optics (KTO), Munich, which will host the wavefront sensor, and a novel detector calibration device. In addition, there are plans for a new coronagraph to be developed jointly by University of Liège (Belgium) and Uppsala University (Sweden).

Detecting and studying potentially habitable planets orbiting other stars will be one of the main scientific goals of the upcoming European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). Although the increased size of the E-ELT will be essential to obtaining an image of a planet at larger distances in the Milky Way, the light collecting power of the VLT is just sufficient to image a planet around the nearest star, Alpha Centauri.

The developments for VISIR will also be beneficial for the future METIS instrument, to be mounted on the E-ELT, as the knowledge gained and proof of concept will be directly transferable. The huge size of the E-ELT should allow METIS to detect and study exoplanets the size of Mars orbiting Alpha Centauri, if they exist, as well as other potentially habitable planets around other nearby stars.

More Information

The Breakthrough Initiatives are a program of scientific and technological exploration founded in 2015 by Internet investor and science philanthropist Yuri Milner to explore the Universe, seek scientific evidence of life beyond Earth, and encourage public debate from a planetary perspective.

Breakthrough Starshot is a $100 million research and engineering program aiming to demonstrate proof of concept for a new technology, enabling ultra-light unmanned space flight at 20% of the speed of light, and to lay the foundations for a flyby mission to Alpha Centauri within a generation.

ESO is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world’s most productive ground-based astronomical observatory by far. It is supported by 16 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, along with the host state of Chile. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world’s most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and two survey telescopes. VISTA works in the infrared and is the world’s largest survey telescope and the VLT Survey Telescope is the largest telescope designed to exclusively survey the skies in visible light. ESO is a major partner in ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. And on Cerro Armazones, close to Paranal, ESO is building the 39-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become “the world’s biggest eye on the sky”.

  • Snofru Chufu

    That is a really good thing!

  • ThomasLMatula

    Yes, way back in the 1960’s it was considered in a Rand Corporation study as a likely location for Earth like planets.

  • Kapitalist

    Great! Interstellar is hard and will take many centuries, so there’s no time to be lost! I think that the only exoplanets directly observed thus far have been young gas giants as they accrete around proto-stars in orbits much further away than that of Pluto, so it will be a challenge to find anything around the old sun like Alpha Centauris.

    Btw, Chinese Kuaizhou launch yesterday/earlier today. $10,000 per kilogram to orbit. Doesn’t that win the entire small sat market? According to Wiki, a bigger version of it can put a ton (1,000 kg) in SSO. What small sat launcher can compete with this even on the power point slides?

  • Kapitalist

    I’d like to see 5% or so of NASA’s budget dedicated to interstellar exploration. Including probes to and observations of the Oort cloud and the interstellar medium and, like here, mapping the interstellar neighborhood thoroughly. A major project should be launching a radio telescope far away enough (550+ AU) that it can use the Sun as a gravitational lens, which would have such a fantastic magnification that it would be able to see the street lights of a planet at Alpha Centauri! Earth based propulsion such as that suggested by Miller of the Breakthrough initiatives should also be developed. And why not pay some SETI people to sit up at night. There’s a whole portfolio of things to get started with.

  • Snofru Chufu

    We may find free floating planets (without a sun), which are hot gas giants and are located between Solar System and “nearby” star system Alpha Centauri. It could be possible that such planets are “only” a half light year away and owns moons, which harbor life.

  • Kapitalist

    Having discovered a potential “Planet Nein” 😉 at one of the corners of the Solar system, anything is possible.
    Around the year of 1800 the first asteroids were being discovered, and by luck of a meteor fall in the village of L’Aigle, France, the connection between asteroids and meteors was understood at the same time. Lots of stuff sailing around between the planets. So might the Oort Cloud be extended all the way to other stars. perhaps.

  • John_The_Duke_Wayne

    “the light collecting power of the VLT is just sufficient to image a planet around the nearest star, Alpha Centauri.”

    What an amazing time to be alive! Not only have we regularly discovered new exoplanets but at an exponential rate, and decreasing size. And now there is such interest in this area that new novel technologies are regularly being developed and employed to greater extent. Even our older telescopes are using new techniques to make observations they were never intended to make and pushing this field constantly forward

    Can’t wait to see the E-ELT, what an amazing feat of engineering that will be

  • ThomasLMatula

    No, because of ITAR, which is an even harder barrier for small sat builders because of the limited resources.